The Person And Work Of The Holy Spirit
An Outline for Bible Study
I. His Divine Personality
A. His Personality.
1. "He" and "Him," not "it" (John 14:16-17; 15:26).
2. They lied to the Holy Ghost; cannot lie to an influence (Acts 5:3-4).
3. Can be grieved (Eph. 4:30).
4. "I have called them" (Acts 13:1-2).
5. He speaks (Heb. 3:7).
6. He teaches (John 14:26).
7. He leads (Rom. 8:14).
8. He loves (Rom. 15:30).
9. He quickens (Rom. 8:11).
B. His Deity.
1. Co-equal with the Father and the Son; all three linked together, proving the Trinity of the Godhead (Matt. 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14; Rev. 1:4).
2. Divine attributes.
a. Omnipresent (Ps. 139:7, 8).
b. Omniscient (1 Cor. 2:10, 11).
c. Omnipotent. Only God can create (Job 26:13; 33:4; Ps. 104:30; 1
d. Eternal (Heb. 9:14).
II. His Special Function In The Godhead
A. Seen throughout Scripture as the Executor of the Divine plans, the active Agent and Power of the Godhead.
1. Active from Gen. 1:3 to Rev. 22:20, from eternity past to eternity future.
B. Always presenting Christ.
1. Before and after incarnation.
III. His Work In Creation
A. Reconstructing the earth for the habitation of man (Gen. 1:3).
1. Garnishing the heavens (Job 26:13).
B. The continued acts of the creation of all life, every man and creature that exists (Ps. 104:29-30).
C. Typical of His work of regeneration in the believing soul and garnishing the believer with fruit of the Spirit.
IV. His Work In The Old Testament
A. Character of His relationship with men.
1. Came upon men and moved them, but did not indwell them (1 Sam. 10:6; 11:6; 16:13; Jud. 11:29).
2. Left men again because of sin (Jud. 16:20; Ps. 51:11).
B. Operations of the Spirit.
1. Striving with men (Gen. 6:3).
2. Regenerating men. Old Testament saints had to be born again also to enter the kingdom (John 3:3).
3. Giving Bezaleel wisdom and understanding to build the tabernacle (Ex. 31:2-5).
4. Causing Balaam to bless Israel (Num. 24:2-10).
5. Moving Samson (Jud. 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14).
6. Inspiring men to write the Scriptures (2 Tim. 3:16; 1 Pet. 1:10-11; 2 Sam. 23:2).
V. The Holy Spirit And Christ
A. Before Incarnation.
1. The Holy Spirit spoke in the Prophets as Christ.
a. "The Spirit of Christ in them" (1 Pet. 1:11).
b. Examples of:
(1) 1 Pet. 3:18-20.
(2) Ps. 16, 22, 40, 69, 109, etc.
B. In Incarnation.
1. His sinless, human body formed by the Holy Ghost.
a. Luke 1:35, Matt. 1:18-20.
b. Typified in Lev. 2:4.
C. During His Life.
1. Anointed at baptism for service and as Priest and Sacrifice.
a. Luke 3:21-22.
b. Type of Ex. 29:5-7 fulfilled.
c. Acts 10:38.
2. His life's service.
a. All He did as Man was in the power of the Holy Spirit.
(1) Luke 4:1.
(2) Preaching (Luke 4:18).
(3) Casting out devils (Matt. 12:28).
(4) The words He spoke (John 14:10).
D. His Death.
1. Offered Himself to God in death through the eternal Spirit (Heb. 9:14).
a. But work of sin-bearing and atonement was done by Christ alone (1 Pet. 2:24).
E. His Resurrection.
1. "Quickened by the Spirit" (1 Pet. 3:18).
2. "Raised up Jesus from the dead" (Rom. 8:11).
F. After Resurrection.
1. Gave commandment through the Holy Ghost unto the disciples (Acts 1:2).
1. The Spirit of God connected with the Man Christ Jesus in conception, baptism and anointing, all through His life, His sacrificial death, resurrection, and after the resurrection.
VI. The Holy Spirit In This Age Of Grace
A. The Spirit given in a newer and fuller way to believers consequent upon the death, resurrection and glorification of Christ.
1. John 7:37-39; 16:7.
2. Outpouring of the Spirit and God dwelling by the Spirit in the Church, the glorious answer of God to the wondrous redemptive work of Christ.
B. A New Era-Christianity.
1. "That Day" (John 14:20).
a. Day of the Spirit's presence and work on the earth and indwelling the Church and individuals. This is what constitutes Christianity and is its characteristic factor.
C. Promises of the Spirit thus.
1. Joel 2:28-29 - promise to nation of Israel.
a. Acts 2:16. "This is that" - not the full fulfilment, but partial. Complete fulfilment is in the Millennium.
2. John 4:10, 14.
a. In you "a well of living water springing up."
3. John 7:37-39.
a. Rivers of living water flowing out.
4. John 14:12, 16-18, 26.
a. The Father sends in answer to the Son's prayer,
b. "Another Comforter," Greek - "parakletos" - One called alongside to help. Manages our affairs; same word as "advocate" (1 John 2:1).
c. The Spirit of Truth.
d. Teach you all things.
(1) See also Luke 12:11-12.
e. Bring all things to your remembrance.
f. "With you"; "In you"; "With you forever."
(1) Founded on work of Christ, therefore in us for ever.
g. "Ye shall know" (v. 20).
5. John 15:26.
a. The Son sends from the Father. The Holy Spirit is the Father's ascension gift to the Son, that He might give Him as a gift to His own.
b. "Shall testify of Me."
6. John 16:7-15.
a. His work in the world (vv. 8-11, detail later on).
b. "Guide you into all truth."
c. "Not speak of (or 'from') Himself" - speaks of what He hears.
d. Glorifies Christ - takes of His and shows it to us.
e. Shows us things to come.
7. Acts 1:4-8.
a. The promise of the Father.
b. Baptized with the Holy Ghost.
c. Shall receive power.
d. Make you witnesses of Me.
D. "Receive ye the Holy Ghost" (John 20:22)
1. Impartation of resurrection life in Christ, by the operation of the Holy Spirit, to the members of a new family, which Christ, the last Adam, a quickening Spirit (1 Cor. 15:45), is the head of. (See Rom. 5:12-21 and 8:1 for subject of two headships.)
2. Holy Ghost as the Spirit of life - not the Spirit of power as at Pentecost - communicating life through Christ, risen, abundant life (John 10:10).
E. Descent of the Spirit at Pentecost (Acts 2)
1. Promises fulfilled.
a. Jesus exalted sends the Holy Spirit (v. 33).
b. 120 indwelt and filled.
c. Endowed with power of the Holy Spirit.
d. Baptized with the Holy Spirit.
2. Miraculous powers.
a. It is Fitting that the coming down of this Divine Person be thus announced.
b. His unprecedented presence made known by signs and wonders.
(1) Symbolical significance of rushing wind and tongues of fire.
(a) Irresistible power and burning energy speaking.
c. Beginning of the gospel and of the Church needed miracles to awaken attention to what God was doing and to accredit these believers as owned of God.
d. Signs - Confirmation of the Word Preached (Heb. 2:3-4).
e. Not necessary for external signs of confirmation to continue.
(1) Less and less of miracles as time goes on in New Testament.
(2) Absence of them in Prison Epistles of Paul and Rev. 2-3.
(3) The Spirit grieved at ruined, divided state of Church and cannot act in full manifestation of mighty signs.
(4) Miracles in Old Testament never continued. Were exceptional events.
3. Formation of the One Body, the Church.
a. Church began at Pentecost (Acts 2:47; future in Matt. 16:18).
b. Baptism of the Spirit.
(1) Individual believers baptized into the one Body, forming one whole, and united to Christ and each other (1 Cor. 12:13; Rom. 12:5); one unity (Eph. 4:3).
(2) This took place at Pentecost. Never repeated, though we participate in this baptism when saved.
(3) Baptism in Scripture signifies introduction into a place (Rom. 6:3; 1 Cor. 10:2).
(4) A corporate thing, not individual. Whole companies baptized.
(5) All were baptized by the Spirit at Corinth and they were in a poor state (1 Cor. 12:13).
4. Building of a Holy Temple.
a. A habitation of God through the Spirit (Eph. 2:20-22; 1 Pet. 2:4).
(1) God comes down to dwell in the Church by His Spirit.
(2) The Spirit filled the house at Pentecost as well as the individual.
5. Features of the Spirit's work at Pentecost.
a. Gift of tongues.
(1) Divine grace surmounting confusion of tongues which man's sin brought in.
(2) Every man heard the gospel in his own mother tongue. Real language, not mere noises.
(3) Gospel preached in every language under heaven (vv. 5-6). The law only spoken in one language.
(4) Theme of utterances: the wonderful works of God.
b. Peter's preaching.
(1) The Spirit gave boldness and power.
(2) Theme - Jesus' resurrection and glorification and their sin of crucifixion.
(3) Conviction wrought.
c. Jews guilty of crucifixion must be baptized with water before receiving the Spirit (vv. 23,38).
(1) Proud Jews must be humbled and be baptized unto the very Name they had cast out. Not so with Gentiles (chap. 10).
d. Only Jews receive the Spirit at Pentecost - "to the Jew first" (Rom. 1:16).
F. Giving of the Spirit to Samaritans (Acts 8:12-17).
1. Special case.
a. Samaritans denied the city and house of God at Jerusalem.
b. Must acknowledge Jerusalem by receiving apostles sent them and then they receive the Spirit.
c. Ancient rivalry done away with this.
G. Giving of the Spirit to Gentiles (Acts 10).
1. Cornelius' company first Gentiles to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
a. Pious man with divine life, but without liberty and peace of known salvation (chaps. 10:2; 22; 11:14).
2. How they received the Spirit.
a. By the preaching of the gospel.
(1) Message of salvation, formerly to Israel, now sent to every nation (chap. 10:34-43).
(2) "Whosoever believeth shall receive remission of sins."
(3) "Whom they slew;" contrast with Acts 2:23. Therefore the difference in receiving the Spirit.
b. By faith in the preached Word.
(1) While 'Peter spoke words of v. 44, the Spirit fell on them.
(2) "By the hearing of faith" (Gal. 3:2).
(3) "When ye believed" (Eph. 1:13).
(4) Not by being baptized, tarrying, praying, but believing.
c. Without water baptism, laying on of hands, or prayer for them, as with the Jews and Samaritans.
d. Spake in tongues also.
(1) This necessary to prove to Jews that Gentiles had received the same, great gift of the Spirit (Acts 11:15-18).
3. Jew and Gentile now united in one Body, the Church, by one Spirit.
a. "One new man" (Eph. 2:15-18; 1 Cor. 12:13).
b. Gentiles baptized into one Body with believing Jews (Acts 11:16).
4. We today come under this type.
a. So we receive the Spirit.
b. External sign of tongues as a proof not needed today as in this first instance of Acts 10 because it is already manifested that Gentiles receive the same gift as Jews.
H. Giving of the Spirit at Ephesus (Acts 19).
1. Twelve disciples only baptized unto John's baptism; never heard of the Holy Spirit's coming, or of Christ's coming.
2. Exceptional case-a delayed addition to Acts 2. Jews who knew not the gospel of Christianity.
3. Were then baptized unto Christ, expressing faith in Him, who died and rose again.
4. Whereupon Paul laid his hands on them and the Spirit came upon them.
a. Apostleship of Paul thus owned as that of Peter in Samaria.
b. External signs followed, showing they were brought into same blessings as the others.
I. Summary of the Spirit's manifestation in tongues.
1. Three cases of Acts 2, 10, 19.
a. Received gift of tongues as a company, without asking for it, and all received it.
b. Each was a matter of the company being introduced into Christianity.
c. No tarrying meetings, except in Acts 2, when the Spirit had not yet descended from heaven.
2. 1 Cor. 12.
a. Gift of tongues not given to all (vv. 10, 30).
b. Only one of Paul's fourteen epistles refers to tongues.
c. Corinthians is corrective, putting gift of tongues last in order (v. 28).
d. Told to covet the best gifts; gift of prophecy, not tongues (Chaps. 12:31; 14:39).
e. Corinthian assembly only one mentioned having gift of tongues,
(1) And low spirituality and evil was present where they had this gift showing it is not a mark of spirituality or progress.
(a) Immorality, divisions, evil doctrines, drunken-ness, etc., in their midst.
(2) They were proud of the spectacular, showy gifts.
f. Gift of tongues not promised to continue till Christ's coming, as the gifts in Eph. 4:11-13 are.
(1) Therefore in Eph. 4:11 are the permanent gifts.
(2) Tongues shall cease (1 Cor. 13:8). Different words used about prophecy and knowledge. They "shall be done away" (New Tr.) "when that which is perfect is come" (vv. 9,10) at Christ's coming, but tongues cease before His coming.
g. Unintelligible sounds and cries of peeping, whispering, muttering, ascribed to evil spirits in Isa. 8:19; 29:4.
J. The Spirit's work in the individual.
1. In the unsaved.
a. Striving of the Spirit (Gen. 6:3).
(1) Resisting the Spirit (Acts 7:51).
(2) "Despite unto the Spirit" (Heb. 10:29).
(3) "Blasphemy against the Spirit" (Matt. 12:31).
b. "Partakers of the Holy Ghost"-"Enlightened" (Heb. 6:4).
c. Conviction of sin, righteousness, and judgment (John 16:8-11).
(1) Example in Acts 2:23, 37.
2. In the Believer.
a. Quickening of the Spirit (John 5:21, 25; 6:63; Eph. 2:1).
b. New birth (John 3:3-8).
(1) Impartation of a new, sinless nature (1 John 3:9).
(2) "Partakers of the divine nature" (2 Pet. 1:4).
(3) "Washing of regeneration" (Titus 3:5).
c. Sanctification of the Spirit (Rom. 15:16; 1 Cor. 6:9-11; 2 Thess. 2:13; 1 Pet. 1:2).
(1) Meaning of sanctification. Set apart for holy purposes - to be separated.
(2) Sanctification positional and conditional, or perfect and progressive, external and internal.
(a) Threefold means of:
1. By work of Christ (Heb. 10:10), positional.
2. By the Spirit (above Scriptures).
3. By the Word applied by the Spirit (John 17:17), conditional, progressive and internal.
(3) How the Spirit Sanctifies.
(a) Works within us a new nature-sinless; thus we are set apart by it-perfect sanctification.
(b) The Spirit works practical sanctification in us daily - progressive.
d. Indwelt by the Spirit (1 Cor. 3:16; 6:19). Permanent, work of Christ the basis.
e. Sealing of the Spirit (Eph. 1:13).
(1) God's mark of ownership forever (Rom. 8:9; Eph. 4:30).
(2) Seal of the King. Unchangeable (Esther 8:8), Untouchable (Daniel 6:17; Rev. 7:3). Secret (Rev. 10:4).
(3) When the gospel of salvation is believed.
f. The witness of the Spirit (Rom. 8:16; 1 John 5:8-10). (1) The seal is God's side.
(2) The witness is our side.
(3) The Spirit of adoption and sonship (Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6).
(4) The Spirit points us to Word of God for assurance of being saved.
g. Baptized by the Spirit (1 Cor. 12:13).
(1) Joined to the Body of Christ.
h. Earnest of the Spirit (Eph. 1:14; 2 Cor. 1:22).
(1) A pledge and foretaste of the inheritance.
(2) Typified by Eshcol's grapes (Num. 13:23-25).
(3) "Firstfruits of the Spirit" (Rom. 8:23).
i. Anointing of the Spirit (2 Cor. 1:21; 1 John 2:20, 27).
(1) Divine illumination giving understanding in divine things.
(2) Official designation and qualification in power for the place (Ex. 29:7; 1 Sam. 16:13; Acts 10:38).
j. "Access by one Spirit unto the Father" (Eph. 2:18).
k. "Communion of the Holy Ghost" (Phil. 2:1; 2 Cor. 13:14).
(1) Sharing and participating in the thoughts, affections and purposes of the Spirit.
(a) Common object with the Spirit, which is Christ.
l. Liberty of the Spirit (2 Cor. 3:17).
(1) Made free from sin by the continuous acting of the Spirit (Rom. 8:2),
(2) Freedom of grace, no bondage.
m. Strengthened by the Spirit (Eph. 3:16).
(1) Empowers the new nature, carries out its desires. etc.
(2) Renewing of the Holy Ghost (Titus 3:5). The Holy Spirit maintaining by His power the enjoyment of divine things and forming the whole moral being of the new man.
(3) Power to put down the flesh (Rom. 8:13).
(4) The Spirit wars against the flesh (Gal. 5:17).
n. Led by and walking in the Spirit (Rom. 8:14; Gal. 5:16, 18).
(1) Doing what the Spirit directs,
(2) Then free from control of the flesh.
o. Filled with the Spirit.
(1) Threefold effect.
(a) For service-special power for special work.
1. John the Baptist (Luke 1:15).
2. Jesus (Luke 4:1).
3. Stephen (Acts 6:3, 5; 6:55).
4. Barnabas (Acts 11:24).
(b) For joy and praise.
1. Elizabeth (Luke 1:41) and Zacharias (Luke 1:67).
2. Disciples (Acts 13:52).
(c) For boldness in confession and testimony.
1. The 120 (Acts 2:4).
2. Peter (Acts 4:8-10).
3. Disciples (Acts 4:31).
4. Paul (Acts 13:9).
(2) "Be filled" (Eph. 5:18).
(a) Present tense - a daily thing - keep filled.
(b) Must be emptied of self, of sin and of the world.
1. Two opposite things cannot occupy the same space at the same time.
(c) The Spirit must be ungrieved to fill us (Eph. 4:30 5:5).
(d) Not filled with wine-symbolical of stimulating excitement of nature.
1. Fleshly feeling and energy often made to take the place of the Spirit's filling.
(e) Not being fanatic.
1. Given the Spirit of power, love and of a sound mind (2 Tim. 1:7).
(3) To be filled means that the Spirit has complete control of our being.
(a) A Guest given management of our home.
p. Fruit of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22).
(1) Not doing, but being. What the Spirit produces in us.
(2) Subject to the sway of the Spirit within, then we will be fruitful.
(3) "Abide in Me" (John 15:4, 5).
(4) "Supply of the Spirit" (Phil. 1:19).
q. "Praying in the Holy Ghost" (Jude 20).
(1) The Spirit forms desire to pray in the heart and leads us in prayer.
(a) The Spirit will lead us to pray according to God's desires for us, and according to His Word, hence answer promised (John 15:7; 16:23; 1 John 3:22).
(2) The Spirit maketh intercession for us and helps our infirmities (Rom. 8:26).
(3) Prayer and supplication in the Spirit (Eph.6:18).
(a) Connected with shield of faith and sword of the Spirit, the Word of God (v. 17).
r. Love in the Spirit (Rom. 15:30; Col. 1:8).
(1) Love begotten in believers' hearts by the Spirit for God and fellow-believers.
(2) Love of God shed abroad in our hearts by the Spirit (Rom. 5:5).
s. The Spirit revealing what God has prepared for us and given us (1 Cor. 2:9-12).
t. Comfort of the Holy Ghost (Acts 9:31).
(1) Connected with walking in the fear of the Lord.
u. "Joy. in the Holy Ghost" (Rom. 14:17; Acts 5:41; 13:52).
v. Quenching the Spirit (1 Thess. 5:19). Putting out His promptings.
w. Grieving the Spirit (Eph. 4:30).
x. The Spirit leads us to cry, "Come, Lord Jesus" (Rev. 22:17, 20).
y. The Spirit will raise up our mortal bodies - quicken them (Rom. 8:11).
K. The Spirit's Work in the Church.
1. Forms Body of Christ, baptizing individuals into it when saved.
2. Makes a "unity of the Spirit," which we are to keep (Eph. 4:3).
a. Recognize only this unity and act upon it by receiving all godly believers, and only such.
b. Lowliness, meekness, longsuffering and forbearance in love, needed to keep unity of the Spirit.
3. The Holy Spirit the only true Vicar and Vicegerent of Christ on earth.
a. He the only Divine Administrator in the Church (1 Cor. 12).
(1) The book of Acts shows this in the early Church.
(2) No human head in the Church in Acts. The Spirit directed and worked by human instruments.
(3) He directs His servants in their service (Acts 8:4, 26, 29, 39; 9:10; 13:2; 16:6-13).
4. He gives spiritual gifts unto believers for Christ's service (1 Cor. 12:8-10).
5. He is the only rightful President and Leader in the local church gathering (1 Cor. 12:11; 14:15-16; Matt. 18:20).
a. For any man then to be given this place, or to take it, is to rob the Holy Spirit of His rightful place and ourselves of much blessing.
b. Worship in the Spirit (John 4:24; Phil. 3:3).
(1) No human arrangements or systems of man in worship in the Spirit.
c. Liberty of the Spirit (2 Cor. 3:17). The Spirit must be free to direct as He wishes and to use whom He will. Human laws and arrangements hinder and grieve His workings. 1 Cor. 14:23-31 shows this liberty of the Spirit in the early Church. Fleshly abuse of this liberty to be corrected, but Paul did not tell them to appoint a leader to curb it.
6. The Spirit hinders progress of evil as indwelling the Church, until He be taken away (2 Thess. 2:7).
VII. The Holy Spirit In The Future
A. Tribulation period.
1. Sent forth into all the earth (Rev. 5:6).
(a) Not now as the Comforter but with the throne of God preparing for judgment.
(b) Also as energizing some to preach the gospel of the kingdom.
2. The Spirit will bring about national resurrection of Israel, conversion and restoration to the land (Ezek. 37).
B. In the Millennium.
1. Joel 2:28-32 then fully fulfilled. The Spirit poured out upon all flesh.
2. The Spirit within them (Ezek. 36:27).
C. In the Eternal State.
1. "Shall abide with you forever" (John 14:16).
R K Campbell
- "The Holy Ghost" - by W H Westcott
- Sealed with the Spirit - by William Kelly
- Romans 7 and 8 - by John Nelson Darby