Exodus

Arend Remmers

Overview of the Old Testament

40 chapters

Author and Time of Writing

What has been said to the book of Genesis also applies to Exodus. In Genesis Moses depended on the revelations of God and possibly on the accounts of his ancestors while he was mostly able to write down the happenings of Exodus to Deuteronomy by his own view and experience under the guidance of the Holy Spirit (compare Ex. 17:14; Deut. 31:22,24).

In the New Testament Moses is mentioned several times as author of Exodus (for example Luke 20:37; Mark 7:10).

Between the happenings at the end of Genesis and the beginning of Exodus there are nearly 300 years.

Purpose of Writing

In the book of Exodus we find no longer exclusively the dealings of God with individuals mentioned. We are coming to know a redeemed people of God. The origin and redemption of God's earthly people Israel is described. Israel is delivered from the slavery in Egypt and is led on to the way into the promised land of Canaan. Therefore Exodus is the book of redemption. Its landmarks are the Passover and the passage through the Red Sea (see explanation in 1 Cor. 5:7; 10:1-2).

After the exodus out of Egypt the people of Israel received the law of Jehovah and erected the tabernacle of congregation according to His command. Through that the new relationship between the people and Jehovah were fixed:

  • God was now dwelling amidst His people
  • Israel was able to approach God and to worship Him (by means of the offerings)
  • the Glory of the Lord was typically revealed.

The epistles to the Romans and Galatians can be compared with the Book of Exodus, there subjects being redemption and the relation of the Christian to the law. 

Peculiarities

a) Typology

The book of Exodus is especially rich in typical teachings. The following is of importance: Egypt is a picture of this present world (Gal. 1:4), the Red Sea is a picture of the death and resurrection of Christ and of the death of the old man with Christ (Rom. 6:6). The stay in the desert describes the earthly circumstances in which the believer has to stand the test (John 17:14-15).

b) Date of Exodus out of Egypt

Most of today's scholars date the exodus of Israel in the 13th century BC, that is in the time of the 19th  Dynasty (Ramses I. to Merenphthah, under whose reign the name of Israel is first mentioned in Egypt). This late date leaves much too little time for the period of conquest of the land and for the time of the judges. The different indications of time in the Bible also would be untrustworthy (see Jud. 11:26; 1 Kings 6:1; Acts 13:20). But if we take the Biblical indications the time of the exodus can be dated to the year 1446 BC approximately.

Overview of Contents

I. Exodus 1-13: Israel in Egypt

Chapter

1

Israel's Oppression

Chapter

2

Moses' Birth, Upbringing and Flight to Midian

Chapter

3

God reveals Himself to Moses as Jehovah (Jahwe) at (Mount) Horeb

Chapter

4

God's Commission to Moses

Chapter

5

Moses speaks to Pharaoh

Chapter

6

God encourages Moses ; Pharaoh hardens his heart

Chapter

7

1st  Plague : Water turned into blood

Chapter

8

2nd Plague : Frogs ; 3rd Plague: Lice (Gnats), 4th Plague: (Dog-) Flies

Chapter

9

5th Plague. Very grievous Murrain ; 6th Plague: Boils; God hardens Pharao's heart; 7th Plague: Hail

Chapter

10

8th Plague : Locusts ; 9th Plague: Darkness

Chapter

11

Announcement of the 10th Plague and of Israel's Exodus

Chapter

12

Institution of the Passover and Killing of all Firstborn in Egypt

Chapter

13

Sanctification of the Firstborn of Israel and Beginning of the Exodus

II. Exodus 14-18: Israel's Journey to Mount Sina